|IN THE LATE 1980S, IN A DECISION IT PROBABLY REGRETS, THE US PROMPTED NEW ZEALAND TO JOIN A NEW AND HIGHLY SECRET GLOBAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM. HAGER'S INVESTIGATION INTO IT AND HIS DISCOVERY OF THE ECHELON DICTIONARY HAS REVEALED ONE OF THE WORLD'S BIGGEST, MOST CLOSELY HELD INTELLIGENCE PROJECTS. THE SYSTEM ALLOWS SPY AGENCIES TO MONITOR MOST OF THE WORLD'S TELEPHONE, E-MAIL, AND TELEX COMMUNICATIONS.||
from his book SECRET POWER
|For 40 years, New Zealand's largest intelligence agency, the Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) the nation's equivalent of the US National Security Agency (NSA) had been helping its Western allies to spy on countries throughout the Pacific region, without the knowledge of the New Zealand public or many of its highest elected officials. What the NSA did not know is that by the late 1980s, various intelligence staff had decided these activities had been too secret for too long, and were providing me with interviews||
documents exposing New Zealand's intelligence
activities. Eventually, more than 50 people
who work or have worked in intelligence and
related fields agreed to be interviewed.
The activities they described made it possible to document, from the South Pacific, some alliance-wide systems and projects which have been kept secret elsewhere. Of these, by far the most important is ECHELON.
|Designed and coordinated by NSA, the ECHELON system is used to intercept ordinary e-mail, fax, telex, and telephone communications carried over the world's telecommunications networks. Unlike many of the electronic spy systems developed during the Cold War, ECHELON is designed primarily for non-military targets: governments, organizations, businesses, and individuals in virtually every country. It potentially affects every person communicating between (and sometimes within) countries|
anywhere in the world.
It is, of course, not a new idea that intelligence organizations tap into e-mail and other public telecommunications networks. What was new in the material leaked by the New Zealand intelligence staff was precise information on where the spying is done, how the system works, its capabilities and shortcomings, and many details such as the codenames.
The ECHELON system is not designed to eavesdrop on a
|particular individual's e-mail or fax link. Rather, the system works by indiscriminately intercepting very large quantities of communications and using computers to identify and extract messages of interest from the mass of unwanted ones. A chain of secret interception facilities has been established around the world to tap into all the major components of the international telecommunications networks. Some monitor communications satellites, others land-based communications networks, and others radio communications. ECHELON links together all these facilities, providing the US||
allies with the ability to intercept a large
proportion of the communications on the
The computers at each station in the ECHELON network automatically search through the millions of messages intercepted for ones containing pre-programmed keywords. Keywords include all the names, localities, subjects, and so on that might be mentioned. Every word of every message intercepted at each station gets automatically searched whether or not a specific telephone number or e-mail address is on the list.
Six UKUSA station target Intelsat satellites
used to relay-and to intercept-most of the
world's e-mail,fax, and telex communications.
The thousands of simultaneous messages are
read in "real time" as they pour into the
station, hour after hour, day after day, as
the computer finds intelligence needles in
SOMEONE IS LISTENING
|keywords have existed since at least the 1970s, but the ECHELON system was designed by NSA to interconnect all these computers and allow the stations to function as components of an integrated whole. The NSA and GCSB are bound together under the five-nation UKUSA signals intelligence agreement. The other three partners all with equally obscure names are the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) in Britain, the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) in Canada, and the Defense Signals Directorate (DSD) in Australia.||The alliance, which grew from cooperative efforts during World War II to intercept radio transmissions, was formalized into the UKUSA agreement in 1948 and aimed primarily against the USSR. The five UKUSA agencies are today the largest intelligence organizations in their respective countries. With much of the world's business occurring by fax, e-mail, and phone, spying on these communications receives the bulk of intelligence resources. For decades before the introduction of the ECHELON system, the UKUSA allies did intelligence|
collection operations for each other, but each
agency usually processed and analyzed the
intercept from its own stations.
Under ECHELON, a particular station's Dictionary computer contains not only its parent agency's chosen keywords, but also has lists entered in for other agencies. In New Zealand's satellite interception station at Waihopai (in the South Island), for example, the computer has separate search lists for the NSA, GCHQ, DSD, and CSE in addition to its own. Whenever the Dictionary encounters a message
containing one of the agencies' keywords, it
Every word of every message intercepted at each station gets automatically searched- whether or not a specific telephone number or e-mail address is on the list.
automatically picks it and sends it directly
to the headquarters of the agency concerned.
No one in New Zealand screens, or even sees,
the intelligence collected by the New Zealand
station for the foreign agencies. Thus, the
stations of the junior UKUSA allies function
for the NSA no differently than if they were
overtly NSA-run bases located on their soil.
The first component of the ECHELON network are stations specifically targeted on the international telecommunications satellites (Intelsats) used by the telephone companies of most countries. A ring of Intelsats is
positioned around the world, stationary above
the equator, each serving as a relay station
for tens of thousands of simultaneous phone
calls, fax, and e-mail. Five UKUSA stations
have been established to intercept the
communications carried by the Intelsats.
The British GCHQ station is located at the top of high cliffs above the sea at Morwenstow in Cornwall. Satellite dishes beside sprawling operations buildings point toward Intelsats above the Atlantic,
Europe, and, inclined
almost to the horizon, the Indian Ocean. An
NSA station at Sugar Grove, located 250
kilometers southwest of Washington, DC, in the
mountains of West Virginia, covers Atlantic
Intelsats transmitting down toward North and
South America. Another NSA station is in
Washington State, 200 kilometers southwest of
Seattle, inside the Army's Yakima Firing
Center. Its satellite dishes point out toward
the Pacific Intelsats and to the east.
The job of intercepting Pacific Intelsat communications
that cannot be intercepted at
Yakima went to New Zealand and Australia.
Their South Pacific location helps to ensure
global interception. New Zealand provides the
station at Waihopai and Australia supplies the
Geraldton station in West Australia (which
targets both Pacific and Indian Ocean
Each of the five stations' Dictionary computers has a codename to distinguish it from others in the network. The Yakima station, for instance, located in desert country
|between the Saddle Mountains and Rattlesnake Hills, has the COWBOY Dictionary, while the Waihopai station has the FLINTLOCK Dictionary. These codenames are recorded at the beginning of every intercepted message, before it is transmitted around the ECHELON network, allowing analysts to recognize at which station the interception occurred.||New Zealand intelligence staff has been closely involved with the NSA's Yakima station since 1981, when NSA pushed the GCSB to contribute to a project targeting Japanese embassy communications. Since then, all five UKUSA agencies have been responsible for monitoring diplomatic cables from all Japanese posts within the same segments of the globe they are assigned||for general UKUSA monitoring. Until New Zealand's integration into ECHELON with the opening of the Waihopai station in 1989, its share of the Japanese communications was intercepted at Yakima and sent unprocessed to the GCSB headquarters in Wellington for decryption, translation, and writing into UKUSA-format intelligence reports (the NSA provides the codebreaking programs).|
Crypto AG: The NSA's Trojan Whore?
about the compromise of trusted ecryption hardware
Networking with Spooks
about control over the internet domain name system
Big Brother Goes Hi Tech
about loss of privacy in the information age
The Secret FISA Court:
Rubberstamping on Rights
about the loss of legal protections from covert surveillance.
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